Learn nuts & bolts of a systematic review – Wednesday, April 15

This class will provide a framework for developing a literature search for a systematic review. Topics will include the following: standards and criteria to consider, establishing a plan, registering a protocol, developing a research question, determining where to search, identifying search terms, reporting search strategies, and managing references.


Our next session is Wednesday, April 15, 12pm-1pm, Information Commons East

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Changes in the Main Library Periodical Collection

The Libraries is making the periodical collection on the third floor of Main Library more orderly and accessible by reorganizing all volumes into a single alphabetically arranged sequence. A project is underway to shelve the current issues with the rest of their bound volumes. Bound periodicals run in alphabetical order on the east side of third floor. If you are having problems locating an issue, please call 335-5299, text 319-313-2395, or visit the Service Desk on the 1st floor.

I have just learned that there is a possibility of sending out letters

Joseph Culver Letter, April 14, 1865, Page 1

Head Qurs. Co. “A” 129th Ills.
Raleigh, N. C. April 14th/65
My Dear Wife

I have just learned that there is a possibility of sending out letters, & I haste to write hoping it may reach you. We arrived at this place yesterday evening & have not yet started out & will not probably until to-morrow as it is already late in the afternoon. We left Goldsboro at sunrise on Monday morning [the 10th] moving in the direction of Smithfield, our corps being on the extreme left. We had several light skirmishes which retarded our progress; &, the country being very swampy, we moved only about 8 or 9 miles & went into camp. It rained considerable during the afternoon & evening.1

We broke camp Tuesday morning [the 11th] about day-light & moved very rapidly. There was only one light skirmish during this day. The weather was very warm & many fell by the way. Two of our Brigade died & several took sick. We reached Smithfield about 4 P.M., having marched about 20 miles. When we halted for dinner, I had but six men of my Company with me, all the rest had fallen out. At Smithfield we recd. the news (official) of the surrender of Lee’s Army.2

At an early hour on Wednesday [the 12th], we started for Raleigh,3 our Brig. acting as train guard until near noon. There was skirmishing in our front but done by Kilpatrick’s Cavalry. In the evening the cavalry captured over 60 wagons loaded with ammunition.4 It was the rear of the Rebel Army retiring from Smithfield. We marched about 16 or 18 miles & went into camp near Swift Creek at about 4 P.M.

Yesterday morning we started at daybreak for this place anticipating a hard day’s battle.5 After moving about 5 miles, we heard the cannon booming in our front, & we supposed the time was near at hand but we kept moving on & on until we came in sight of this place but found no enemy. It seems that the 14th Corps having had some ten miles the shortest route, were two or three hours in advance of us & kept up a skirmish with the Rebel rear guard.6 We are therefore in possession of Raleigh without a battle.

We have lost track of Johnson’s [sic] Army which accounts probably for our stay here to-day.7 Gov. Vance surrendered the city on the approach of our army.8 There are a vast number of Rebel sick & wounded here with their Surgeons, nurses, &c. I was through the City this morning. It is quite a small place, though in its prosperity has been beautiful. The Rebs blew up the depots.

Citizens say that Johnson’s Army passed through in great haste the evening before we came & that Johnson declared he would not fight another battle. They have no Official news of the surrender of Lee’s Army, Grant having destroyed their communication. Some of our boys saw a rebel soldier who was present when Lee surrendered but escaped afterward & reached his home. He was hid while Johnson’s Army passed through but made his appearance this morning. He said that all of Lee’s Army supposed Johnson had surrendered to Sherman. Unless Stonemann’s or Sheridan’s cavalry stop him, we will have a severe foot race yet.

The prospects look glorious. Let us praise God for all his blessings. We had good meetings after going into camp at Smithfield & Swift Creek & a most excellent one here last night. There were three forward for prayers, & God was with us.

We recd. to-day New York papers of the 7th with full acounts of the battles. This is doubtless a day of great rejoicing in the north as it has been set apart especially for that purpose.9

I have felt like getting home soon. I do not think we will have any more severe battles. So far as we have learned, Johnson’s Army is very much demoralized & have no intention of fighting longer if they can help it. May God grant us a bloodless victory. I am unable to see what they can gain by holding out longer. The train is expected from Goldsboro to-morrow, but, as all our mail was ordered to Fortress Monroe, I cannot expect a letter.10 We are all well. The weather is very pleasant though a little warm. We have a beautiful camp in a pine grove near the city.

Give my love to all. Kiss Howard for Papa. May Our Father in Heaven keep & bless you. With much love, I remain

Your affectionate Husband
J. F. Culver

  1. The XX Corps camped on the night of the 10th at Atkinson’s, one mile west of Moccasin Creek. During the day, Slocum’s advance had skirmished with troopers of the 1st South Carolina Cavalry, losing two killed and five wounded. Orders for the next day’s march called for General Geary’s Second Dvision to take the advance, followed by the Third and First Divisions. O.R., Ser. I, Vol. XLVII, pt. III, pp. 155-157.
  2. General Sherman, in acknowledging receipt of Grant’s telegrams reporting surrender of Lee’s army, replied on the 12th, “I hardly know how to express my feelings, but you can imagine them. The terms you have given Lee are magnanimous and liberal. Should Johnston follow Lee’s example, I shall, of course, grant the same. He is retreating before me on Raleigh, but I shall be there to-morrow.” Ibid., p. 177.
  3. Mower’s orders for the day’s march called for the XX Corps to cross Neuse River, and march on the Leechburg road to the intersection of the Elevation and Raleigh roads, where it would turn north to Swift Creek. General Ward’s Third Division had the lead, with the 1st Brigade guarding the trains. Ibid., pp. 170-71.
  4. Brig. Gen. Judson Kilpatrick’s cavalry, as it spearheaded the Union advance from Swift Creek toward Raleigh, skirmished frequently with Confederate horse soldiers of Lt. Gen. Wade Hampton’s command covering the retreat of Johnston’s army. Ibid., p. 186.
  5. Swift Creek was 14 miles from Raleigh. On the 13th the XX Corps marched in the following order : First, Second, and Third Divisions. Ibid., p. 185.
  6. Sherman’s cavalry entered Raleigh on the morning of the 13th, the city being surrendered by the mayor to General Kilpatrick. Johnston’s army, covered by Hampton’s and Wheeler’s cavalry, had evacuated the city on the 12th, retreating toward Hillsboro. Kilpatrick’s horse-soldiers ,not wanting to give the Rebels a chance to regroup, pressed on ten miles to Morrisville, and in doing so, smashed a number of roadblocks manned by Wheeler’s troopers. Ibid., pp. 197-98.
  7. On the 14th Generals Sherman and Johnston had agreed to a temporary suspension of hostilities, with the object of finding a formula for ending the war. Sherman accordingly promised to limit the advance of his main columns to Morrisville and his cavalry to Chapel Hill, while expecting Johnston to maintain his present position. Johnston’s army was camped in and around Hillsboro. Ibid., pp. 206-07.
  8. J.F.C. was mistaken. The mayor (not Governor Zebulon B. Vance) surrendered the city to the Federals. Ibid., p. 197.
  9. The War Department on April 9 had ordered “a salute of 200 guns to be fired at the headquarters of every army and department, and at every post and arsenal in the United States, and at the Military Academy at West Point, on the day of the receipt of the order, in commemoration of the surrender of General R. E. Lee and the Army of Northern Virginia to Lieutenant-General Grant and the army under his command.” Ibid., pp. 351-52. Meanwhile, President Lincoln was getting ready to call for a day of national thanksgiving.
  10. Working parties had been turned to repairing railroad bridges and trestles burned by the retreating Confederates. By the 17th the only bridge not rebuilt spanned the Neuse, and trains were running north from Goldsboro and south from Raleigh to the Neuse, where transfers were effected. Ibid., p. 238.
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National Submarine Day

We all live in a yellow submarine....

We all live in a yellow submarine….


When you think of submarines, you might think of sub sandwiches, or start singing “…We all live in a yellow submarine, yellow submarine, yellow submarine….”1

But, as we recognize April 11th as National Submarine Day, it is good to remember that living on a US Naval Submarine is a hazardous place to be. On April 11, 1900 the first commissioned submarine, the USS Holland, was acquired by the United States Navy. The Holland was not the first Navy sub, however. That honor goes to the Alligator which was the first submarine ordered and built by the Navy, although it was never commissioned.

In 1863, the Alligator was being towed by the Sumpter, with the plan for the two ships to join the Union attack on Charleston, South Carolina. They were caught in a Nor’easter and the captain of the Sumpter made the decision to cut the ties to the Alligator. The submarine was lost in the “Graveyard of the Atlantic” and was forgotten for nearly 140 years. 2

No lives were lost when the Alligator sank, but there have been many submarine disasters since then. As submarines become larger and more sophisticated, more and more crew are needed, and the loss of life becomes more dramatic.

"Potent, lethal, secret. The ultimate war machine."

“Potent, lethal, secret. The ultimate war machine.”


“Potent, lethal, secret. The ultimate war machine. Nothing else on earth is so densely packed with men and firepower. Submarines truly fought the Cold War. Yet for all their might they are no match for the power of the sea. The submariner’s deadliest enemy is not the other side, it is the ocean itself.” 3


The Civil War submarine HL Hunley was the first submarine to sink a ship in combat. It is known as the “murdering ship,” not because of the lives she took, but because her own crew died when she sank. So many lives were lost that World War I submarines became known as the “coffin service.“ 3

There are many causes of submarine disasters and loss of life, including water rushing in through cracks in the submarine’s hull, torpedoes exploding, valves not sealing, electrical problems, and a loss of power. The intense pressure of the deep seas can crush a submarine, causing a “humane,” instantaneous death. Most of the submarine deaths are much less humane and include suffocation and drowning.  After nuclear powered subs were introduced, radiation poisoning also became a threat. 3

Safety was a concern about submarines from the very beginning. The earliest patents were often for safety equipment on submarines. In 1907 a patent was granted for “Means of Escape from Sunken Submarines.”4 But ways to more reliably rescue crews from downed subs weren’t developed until 1927 when the “Momsen Lung” was developed. The Momsen Lung recycled exhaled air and was hung around the sailors’ neck. It provided oxygen for the ascent and allowed the submariner to slowly rise to the surface, thus avoiding the bends.5

The Steinke Hood.

The Steinke Hood.


In 1962, the U.S. Navy introduced the Steinke Hood, an inflatable life jacket with a hood that trapped a bubble of breathing air and completely enclosed the submariner’s head. The Steinke Hood was standard equipment on all Navy submarines throughout the Cold War. The Navy then began replacing the Steinke Hood with the Submarine Escape Immersion Equipment (SEIE). This was a combination whole-body suit and one-man life raft. It provided protection against hypothermia in the freezing water – which is something that neither the Momsen Lung nor Steinke Hood was equipped to do. 6

Currently the Navy is working not only to improve survival rates on submarines but  also means of escape and rescue. One improvement are the  Deep Submergence Rescue Vehicles (DSRV) which are capable of rescues down to 2000 feet. Another one of the future rescue systems will include the ability to transfer personnel under pressure. This would allow crew members to be rescued at deep depths under immense pressure and then be transferred to a decompression chamber. 

Cross section of a submarine

Cross section of a submarine

For more information on this fascinating subject, check out the resources listed below, and the others we have here in the library.

Engineering Library video record 39620 DVD

Engineering Library video record 39620 DVD



  1. George Martin, Paul McCartney, John Lennon, George Harrison. Copyright: Sony/ATV Tunes LLC, Sony/ATV Music Publishing (UK) Limited, Northern Songs
  2. Undersea Warfare. Spring 2006. The Official Magazine of the U.S. Submarine Force. vol. 8, no. 3.
  3. Lost Subs: disaster at sea. 2002. National Geographic Television & Film : Burbank CA. Engineering Library video record 39620 DVD
  4. Means of escape from sunken submarines. 1907 patent.
  5. Swede Momsen: Diving & Rescue – Momsen Lung. Science & Technology Focus, Office of Naval Research. Date accessed: March 2015.
  6. Steinke Hood. 2000-2015. Global Security.org. Date accessed: March 2015.
  7. Submarine rescue: ready for the unthinkable. Fall 2000. Undersea Warfare: the Official Magazine of the U.S. Submarine Force, vol. 3, no. 1



  1. The nuclear pioneers: atomic subs and nuclear missiles. 2007. Periscop Film. Engineering Circulation Desk Video Record 39515 DVD
  2. Coen, Ross Allen. 2012. Breaking ice for Arctic oil : the epic voyage of the SS Manhattan through the Northwest Passage. Fairbanks : University of Alaska Press. Engineering Library HE595 .P4 C64 2012.
  3. Fossen, Thor I. 2011. Handbook of marine craft hydrodynamics and motion control. Chichester, West Sussex, U.K. ; Hoboken N.J. : Wiley. Engineering Library VM156 .F67 2011
  4. The story of the AlligatorThe Hunt for the Alligator, The Navy & Marine Living History Association (NMLHA), in cooperation with the National Oceanic & Atmospheric Association (NOAA) and the Office of Naval Research (ONR). Date accessed: March 2015.
  5. Delgado, James P. 2011. Silent killers: submarines and underwater warfare. Oxford : New York : Osprey. Engineering Library V210 .D45 2011.
  6. Submarine Frequently Asked Questions. Chief of Naval Operations, Submarine Warfare Division. Date accessed, March 2015. (some of the answers are dated – #10, women are, as of 2010, now allowed to be Naval submariners. See Navy Policy Will Allow Women to Serve Aboard Submarines. America’s Navy. 4/29/2010


Yours of the 7th inst. inquiring about my box is just received

Joseph Culver Letter, April 10, 1865, Page 1Office Chief of Artillery, District of Tennessee, Nashville, Tenn., April 10th 1865.
Dear Mollie,

Yours of the 7th inst. inquiring about my box &c. is just received. The box reached me more than a week ago, and I immediately wrote to Maggie and Mrs. Johnston, acknowledging receipt. I forwarded Morton’s box without delay. The Agent of Adam’s Express Co. told me that it would reach him in East Tenn. He has probably received ere this.

I did not mention this in my letter to Mr. Johnston, supposing that my preceding letters had been received. Mollie please inform me who paid the Express charges on my box and how much they were. I had a letter from Sammy and James Rollins day before yesterday. They are enjoying life as well as soldiers can be expected to do. The Battry is now at Cleveland Tenn. I had a call day before yesterday from Wm McCord. and quite a pleasant visit with him. He was on his way from Columbia, Tenn. to Murfreesboro. Will looks very healthy and robust- seems to stand the service well. He is about as tall as Sammy but rather heavier.

I wrote you a few days ago. Love to all. Good bye- in haste

Ever Your Affectionate Brother
Wm J. Murphy
Box 1182

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Tonight Only! The Brinton Silent Film Project


Tonight Only!  The Brinton Silent Film Project

Friends of the UI Libraries Annual Event
Wednesday, May 6, 2015

Join Mike Zahs and Red Cedar Chamber Music for an evening of motion pictures and music from the earliest days of film.  In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, The Brinton Entertainment Co. of Washington, Iowa, would travel throughout the Midwest bringing films, magic lantern slides, and other forms of entertainment to populations who, in many cases, had never before seen such sights.

Now, the Brinton Collection is being preserved by the UI Libraries, and Zahs, partnering with Red Cedar Chamber Music, will show the silent films with a newly-commissioned score.  The filmmakers from Northland Films, who have been documenting the Brinton Collection project, will discuss their film and show a special preview.

Following the program, a reception will be offered in Special Collections, with the opportunity to interact with Zahs, the musicians, and the filmmakers and the chance to view some of the artifacts.

Program at 5:30 PM
Shambaugh Auditorium, Main Library

Reception at 6:30 PM
Special Collections Reading Room, Main Library
cash bar, light refreshments

The event is free, but reservations ARE appreciated.  RSVP by Thursday, April 30th, 2015, by calling 319-335-6093 or e-mail lib-friends@uiowa.edu

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Database of the Week: Kompass

Each week we will highlight one of the many databases we have here at the Pomerantz Business Library.

The database: KompassKompass

Where to find it: You can find it here, and under K in the databases A-Z list.

Kompass is a business to business import and export directory that enables you to gather information about other companies and promote your company in the global marketplace. Kompass business to business directory has 2.3M companies in 70 countries referenced by 57.000 product & service keywords 860,000 trade names, 4.6M executive names.

Use it to find:

  • Business information
  • Lists of company’s activities and products
  • Trade names
  • Executives

Tips for searching:

  • Use the quick search bar
  • Filter using the left hand sidebar, by: Categories (company activity, company name, executives, etc.), Location, Number of Employees, and Activities.


Want help using Kompass? Contact Willow or Kim and set up an appointment.

The whole Army will move on Raleigh in the morning

Joseph Culver Letter, April 9, 1865, Page 1

Head Quarters Co. “A” 129th Ills. Vols.
Goldsboro, N.C.
April 9th 1865
My Dear Wife

We have just recd. notice that the last mail leaves at 3 o’clock, and it is now 1/2 past one. The whole Army will move on Raleigh in the morning;1 it is about 50 miles. Whether we will have much hard fighting or not, God only knows. There cannot be many more battles.

I was very sadly disappointed in not getting any letters to-day; & now the last mail has come in, I shall not probably hear from you for several weeks. Yet I trust you are well. I thought my letter from Kinston [of March 24] would surely reach you in time for your answer to reach me before we left here. I believe I should have been fully satisfied but must content myself without. The last I recd. was of date the 23rd March & the one before the last the 16th, but I heard from you through Bro. Gaff of the 28th March.

We have been very busy to-day, & I was thinking I would write you a long letter to-night, but that prospect was blighted by the notice recd. a few minutes ago that no more mails would leave after 3 o’clock. We just recd. a letter from Henry Polk; he was at Annapolis, Md., on the 28th March & was to leave for St. Louis next day. His safety causes great rejoicing; he will doubtless get home.

Jim Chritten, Wm. Sutcliff, Winnie Kelley, & Sherman McQuown came up to-day. Mat DeLong will be here to-morrow.

We had a most excellent meeting this morning, & the Sacrament of the Lord’s Supper was administered. It was a blessed time. God grant that we may soon enjoy such a privilege at home with our loved ones. Wm. Bronson’s discharge papers came this morning, & he starts for home to-morrow. I do not think we will get to see him again. WE HAVE (I commenced a sentence but was interrupted & forgot what it was). Alf Huetson has just come in & brings glorious news. Genl. Grant has telegraphed us to move on Johnson[sic] & end this matter as soon as possible.2 Henry Snyder was sent to the rear yesterday sick;3 he is not very bad but was unable to march. All the troops are in good spirits & are tired of camp. We are well prepared for the campaign. The weather is beautiful.

I took my chair to the fire after breakfast this morning & reread & burned all your letters, 13 in all. It seemed sacriligious, but I could not run any risk of their falling into strangers’ hands. I wished very much to preserve them. I kept only the last one & hoped to place another in my pocket this afternoon & burn it, but I will carry this one to read occasionally.

We have just learned that John Harper has been exchanged so he will probably be at home soon.4 I find it almost impossible to write as there [are] so many questions to answer & things to attend to. Everyone is busy packing up. I will not get time or opportunity to write to the Sunday School or Church; I intended to do so this afternoon. You must remember me to them & tell them that I have been so very busy, but I have prayed for them every day since I left. I think Bro. Crist might have answered my letter but presume he had not time.

Give my kind regards to all my friends. I intended to write to Abbie & Lida Remick but have the same excuse to all. Want of time. My “Sentinel” has not come yet through. I saw one to-day of the 16th containing my Charleston letter full of mistakes. Before this reaches you, we will be beyond Raleigh, or at least fight[ing] for it.

We are to draw some clothing in a few minutes, & I must cut my letter short. There are so many things I wished to write about, but in the hurry I shall not be able. If it be Our Father’s will, I will make up for it when the campaign is ended. Be of good cheer, &, during the long weeks in which you may not hear from me, trust more in God. He will care for us. I feel that I can trust him wholly. If I should fall, we will certainly meet in a better and happier world, & you must teach Howard to remember me. Kiss him Good bye for me.

I feel very happy to-day knowing that God is ours and that his love is exercised toward us. I feel very thankful to our friends in Pontiac who are trying to make you happy by their kind attentions. Remember me particularly to Mrs. Johnson, Emily, Mrs. McGregor & family, Mrs. Smith, Lou, & all others who by their kindness comfort you in my absence. And now, dearest, I must say Good bye for a short time. Kiss Howard occasionally for me. I commit both you & him to the kind care of Our Father in Heaven. Write often. Should communication be kept open, I might possibly hear from you, & at all events, I will get them when the campaign closes. By orders just recd. our letters must be directed as follows.

May the richest of Heavens blessings rest upon you. With a kiss and much love, I remain through life,

Your affect. Husband
J. F. Culver
Co. “A” 129th Ills.
1st Brig., 3d Div., 20th A.C.
Army of Georgia
Fortress Monroe

  1. General Mower on the 8th had notified his division commanders that at daylight on the 10th they would start for Smithfield, taking the river road. The First Division would have the lead. Each division would be accompanied by its ambulance and tool wagons, and ten ammunition wagons. The remainder of the train, with the exception of four artillery ammunition wagons, would follow the XIV Corps trains. O. R., Ser. I, Vol. XLVII, pt. III, pp. 132, 145.
  2. The dispatch referred to is probably General Grant’s Burkeville telegram of April 6 which read, “We have Lee’s army pressed hard, his men scattering and going to their homes by the thousands. He is endeavoring to reach Danville, where Davis and his cabinet have gone. I shall press the pursuit to the end. Rush Johnston at the same time and let us finish up this job all at once.” Ibid., p. 109.
  3. For data on Henry Snyder see J.F.C.’s letter of March 24, 1865.
  4. John A. Harper, a 21-year-old carpenter, was mustered into service on Sept. 8, 1862, as a corporal in Company G, 129th Illinois Infantry. Corporal Harper served with the regiment throughout the war. Compiled Service Records of Union Soldiers, NA.
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Routledge Handbooks Online – Trial ends 8 June 2015

Routledge Handbooks Online brings together the world’s leading scholars to provide a cutting-edge overview of classic and current research and future trends in the Social Sciences and Humanities, while at the same time providing an authoritative guide to theory and method, the key sub-disciplines, and the primary debates of today.

Please send additional comments to Ericka Raber.

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The cheering last night

Joseph Culver Letter, April 7, 1865, Page 1

Apr. 8th

The cheering last night was over Sherman’s official report of the fall of Richmond.1


  1. On the 8th General Sherman notified his subordinates that he had “Official intelligence from General Grant of the defeat of Lee’s army and occupation of Petersburg and Richmond.” Grant’s columns were pursuing fragments of Lee’s army, “represented at 20,000, toward Danville.” O. R., Ser. I, Vol. XLVII, pt. III, p. 132.
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