Open Access Fund – articles in Iowa Research Online

Two years ago, the University Libraries and the Provost’s Office launched an Open Access Fund to pay the processing fees related to open access publishing.

The fund is meant to encourage the University community to publish their research in open access journals.  Articles required to be deposited according to NIH’s Public Access Policy are not eligible for the fund.

The open access publishing model allows free, immediate access to research and allows authors to retain intellectual property rights to their research. Some open access journals charge article processing fees to make the work freely available online. More information about the fund can be found here.

To date, 73 funded items have been funded, published and added to our institutional repository, with 10 published in 2015, 40 in 2014, and 23 in 2013. An additional 17 items have been approved and are awaiting publication. The author publishing charges for these 73 articles total $101,605.03, for an average cost of $1,391.85.

 
oafund-college

Open access journals which charge author fees are more common in the sciences. Our collection of articles is similarly heavy in the sciences.

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Most of the articles are in journals that are completely open access. A few are in hybrid journals. (If you have an item in a hybrid journal, you can may be able to post a version of the article in IRO without paying an additional fee. Contact Janna Lawrence for more information.) One article is available freely on the publisher’s site, but we cannot add it to our collection, because the publisher required that the authors give away their copyright of the article to the publisher as a condition of publication.

 

 

Happy 25th Anniversary, Hubble!

Hubble Space Telescope, taken on 2nd servicing mission. Photo credit: NASA

Hubble Space Telescope, taken on 2nd servicing mission. Photo credit: NASA

On April 24, 1990 the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) was launched from  the Space Shuttle Discovery. Previously, telescopes had been positioned on remote mountaintops and away from city lights in order to prevent distortion from Earth’s atmosphere. Now Hubble was being propelled into Earth’s orbit to prevent atmospheric distortion literally by rising above it.

That atmosphere is what causes start to look as if they are twinkling (sorry romantics, they don’t really twinkle….)1 But, once outside Earth’s atmosphere, “… [Hubble] can see astronomical objects with an angular size of 0.05 arc seconds, which is like seeing a pair of fireflies in Tokyo from your home in Maryland.” 2

As telescopes go, Hubble is not large, the mirror measures 7’10″ across (2.4 meters), the length of a large school bus3 (the largest telescope in the southern hemisphere is 30 feet).4 Hubble weighs 24,500 pounds – as much as 2 full-grown elephants5 –  and  was named after Edwin Hubble, the man who is credited with discovering the cosmos.

Jeff Hoffman (with red stripes on the legs of his suit) and Story Musgrave work on the Hubble Space Telescope. Photo Credit: NASA

Jeff Hoffman (with red stripes on the legs of his suit) and Story Musgrave work on the Hubble Space Telescope. Photo Credit: NASA

Within a couple of weeks after it was launched, it became obvious that Hubble’s mirror had a flaw.  The curvature was off by off by 1/50 of a human hair – 2.2 microns – enough to cause fuzzy images to be sent back to earth. Hubble was circling Earth at 17, 500 miles per hour and 343 miles above it, and scientists needed to figure out a way to correct Hubble’s flawed mirror. In 1993 the first servicing mission was launched and Hubble’s flaw was successfully corrected. The mission was the first chance to fix the flaw, install new instruments and conduct routine maintenance.6

Hubble was designed to work with the Space Shuttles, the plan being that once it was no longer serviceable, it would be brought back to Earth and displayed in a museum. The retirement of the space shuttles means, however, that Hubble will not be able to be brought back to Earth. Now, a robotic mission is expected to help guide Hubble out of orbit, through Earth’s atmosphere and into the ocean.7

 

Hubble "Deep Field." Photo released in 1996

Hubble “Deep Field.” Photo released in 1996. Photo Credit

 

The Hubble Telescope doesn’t travel to distance stars, planets or galaxies, it photographs them and in January of 1996 the “Hubble Deep Field” was released. At that time it was humanity’s most distant view of the Universe. For ten days scientists aimed Hubble at a single spot in Ursa Major (the Big Dipper), taking several hundred photos with exposure times of 15 to 40 minutes.  “The result was a stunning still life of more than two thousand galaxies, a flurry of budding, tumultuous light whipped up in the shadowy primordial vacuum.” (Kanipe. pg 6)8

The brightest galaxies visible in the Deep Field are between 7 and 8 billion light-years away, some from 12 billion years ago. Some of the Milky Way’s oldest stars which congregate in globular clusters, are about 13 billion years old. 9 In fact, “Hubble has peered back into the very distant past, to locations more than 13.4 billion light years from Earth.”10

Mystic Mountain. Photo released for Hubble's 20th Anniversary.

Mystic Mountain. Photo released for Hubble’s 20th Anniversary.

 

The photo of  “Mystic Mountain Nebula” was released for Hubble’s 20th Anniversary. Mystic Mountain is a pillar of gas and dust, three light-years tall. The brilliant light from nearby stars is eating away at it, while infant stars within the Mystic Mountain fire jets of gas.11

 

 

The Sombrero Galaxy.

The Sombrero Galaxy.

 

The Sombrero Galaxy is just beyond the visibility of the naked eye, but can be seen with small telescopes. There are nearly 2,000 globular clusters which range in age from 10-13 billion years old. This is 10 times as many globular clusters as the Milky Way.12

 

Pandora's Cluster. Photo published 2013.

Pandora’s Cluster. Photo published 2013.

Pandora’s Cluster appears to have a complex and violent history. It seems to be the “… result of a simultaneous pile-up of at least four separate, smaller galaxy clusters. The crash took place over a span of 350 million years.”13

 

 

 

The Rose of Galaxies

The Rose of Galaxies

To celebrate Hubble’s 21st anniversary, scientists pointed it a group of interacting galaxies called Arp 273.  The larger of the spiral galaxies is distorted into a rose-like shape by the gravitational tidal pull of the companion galaxy. The blue jewels across the top are combined light from intensely bright and hot young blue stars. They glow intensely in the ultraviolet light.  The series of unusual spiral patterns are signs of interaction.14

In the 25 years since Hubble was launched it has made more than 1 million observations. Astronomers using that data have published more than 12,700 articles, making it one of the most productive scientific instruments ever built.  It has circled Earth and traveled more than 3 billion miles and produces about 10 terabytes of new data each year.15 The policies governing Hubble have helped make it so rich in data and productivity. Any astronomer in the world can submit a proposal and request time on the telescope. When a proposal is chosen by a team of experts, that astronomer has a year to pursue their work. Once the year is up  the data is released to the scientific community, which has given rise to numerous findings – many not predicted in the original proposal.16

Happy 25th Anniversary!!

 

RESOURCES:

  1. Zimmerman, Robert. 2008. The universe in a mirror: the saga of the Hubble Telescope and the visionaries who built it. Princeton,
    The Universe in a Mirror Engineering Library QB500.268 .Z56 2008

    The Universe in a Mirror
    Engineering Library QB500.268 .Z56 2008

    N.J. : Princeton University Press. Engineering Library QB5.268 .Z56 2008

  2. Hubble Space Telescope. Feb. 20, 2015. NASA.
  3. Ibid.
  4. Southern Africa Large Telescope (SALT). Dec. 29, 2011. Space.com
  5. Hubble Space Telescope. Feb. 20, 2015. NASA.
  6. The Hubble Space Telescope. National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center. This website is kept for archival purposes only and is no longer updated. Accessed: April 2015.
  7. The Telescope Hubble Essentials. HubbleSite. Date Accessed: April 2015.
  8. Kanipe, Jeff. Chasing Hubble’s shadows: the search for galaxies at the edge of time. 2006. New York : Hill and Wang. Engineering Library QB500.262 .K36 2006.
  9. Ibid.
  10. Hubble Space Telescope. Feb. 20, 2015. NASA.
  11. Newscenter. April 22, 2010. HubbleSite.
  12. Gallery. HubbleSite. Date Accessed, April 2015.
  13. Newscenter. June 22, 2011. HubbleSite.
  14. Newscenter. “Rose” of Galaxies. April 20, 2011. HubbleSite.
  15. Hubble Space Telescope. Feb. 20, 2015. NASA
  16. The Telescope Hubble Essentials. HubbleSite. Date Accessed: April 2015.

FOR MORE INFORMATION:

  1. Chaline, Eric. 2012. Fifty machines that changed the course of history. Buffalo, N.Y. : Firefly Books. Engineering Library TJ15 .C44 2012
  2. Weintraub, David A. 2011. How old is the universe? Princeton, J.J. : Princeton University Press. Engineering Library QB501 .W45 2011
  3. O’Dell, C. Robert. 2003. The Orion Nebula : where stars are born. Cambridge, Mass. : Belknap press of Harvard University Press. Engineering Library QB855.9.O75 O34 2003
  4. Zimmerman, Robert. 2008. The universe in a mirror : the saga of the Hubble Telescope and the visionaries who built it. Princeton, N.J. : Princeton University Press. Engineering Library QB500.268 .Z56 2008.
  5. You and the rest’: twenty years since NASA’s dramatic Hubble repair mission (part 1)AmericaSpace. Date Accessed: April 2015
  6. Expect the unexpected in a Hubble 25th anniversary video. April 10, 2015. NASA.
  7. The Hubble Space Telescope turns 25 – here are its best 25 imagesApril 20, 2015. Extreme Tech.
  8. Highlights of HubbleApril 15, 2015. Nature: International weekly journal of science.
  9. Biography of a space telescope: Voices of Hubble. April 15, 2015. Nature: International weekly journal of science.

 

 

 

Open Access Fund Articles in IRO

Two years ago, the University Libraries and the Provost’s Office launched an Open Access Fund to pay the processing fees related to open access publishing. The fund is meant to encourage the University community to publish their research in open access platforms. The open access publishing model allows free, immediate access to research and allows authors to retain intellectual property rights to their research. To recoup publishing costs, some open access journals charge article processing fees to make the work freely available online. More information about the fund can be found here.

To date, 73 funded items have been funded, published and added to our institutional repository, with 10 published in 2015, 40 2014, and 23 in 2013. An additional 17 items have been approved and are awaiting publication. The author publishing charges for these 73 articles total $101,605.03, for an average cost of $1,391.85.

The articles come from a wide variety of colleges, with majority of articles having authors in the Carver College of Medicine and in the College of Liberal Arts & Sciences.

University of Iowa Open Access fund article counts by College, 23 April 2015Open access journals which charge author fees are more common in the sciences. Our collection of articles is similarly heavy in the sciences.

University of Iowa Open Access fund article counts by Department/School/Program, 23 April 2015

Most of the articles are in journals that are completely open access. A few are in hybrid journals. (If you have an item in a hybrid journal, you can may be able to post a version of the article in IRO without paying an additional fee. Contact your subject specialist for more information.) One article is available freely on the publisher’s site, but we cannot add it to our collection, in part because the publisher required that the authors give away their copyright of the article to the publisher as a condition of publication.

We are very happy to have been able to support open scholarship at the University of Iowa with this fund.

I commenced to write about an hour before the mail left

Joseph Culver Letter, April 23, 1865, Page 1

Head Quarters Co. “A” 129th Ills. Vols.
Raleigh N.C., April 23rd 1865
My Dear Wife

I commenced to write about an hour before the mail left to-day, but Harry McDowell came in with the New York Herald containing an account of the Assassination & death of President Lincoln, and I laid the letter aside to read the particulars. It is now too late for to-day’s mail. The mail has not come in yet. I anticipate a good long letter from you; I have recd. none since yours of the 9th.

This has been a beautiful day and very pleasant. The first sound that greeted my ear on awaking this morning was the sweet warbling of a bird. I heard several sing very sweetly this morning. During the few years of the war, the birds have been very scarce in the neighborhood of the Army, at least, & to hear them again is a great treat.

Bro. John Lee has been sitting here for the last 30 minutes talking. He is in good health & recd. a letter from home yesterday of the 12th inst. I laid aside my letter to converse with him. I am not certain that I shall accomplish much in the way of writing until after church to-night as there are so many around. Alva Garner & James Maxwell are here,1 & there is a constant crowd around, talking of going home; but then the wind is so high that if it continues it will be impossible to keep a candle burning to-night.

It seems as if the war was over.2 Everything bears the impress of the Holy Sabbath. We had an excellent meeting this morning. Genl. Class at 9-1/2 & preaching at 10-1/2. Our Brig. Church numbers 195 members, ten joined to-day. The ordnance [sic] of baptism was administered this afternoon; I was not out. Our night meetings continue to be very interesting; there were five at the Alter [sic] last night & some conversions every day during the week.

The news of the death of the President is now established beyond doubt, and the developments implicate the ‘”Knights of the Golden Circle.”3 I am not surprised. Everyone here when the rumor first reached us exclaimed that it was the work of the Copperheads. We have spent three years in honorable warfare; this event foreshadows what we must anticipate at our “Homes.” It will be much more difficult to meet successfuly, & many innocent will doubtless suffer with the guilty. But the issue must be met, & the Army is preparing for it. Genl. Sherman’s order indicates the line of policy to be pursued.4 The order proclaiming Peace has been delayed beyond our anticipations, owing no doubt to the change of the Government and the additional time required to define the policies to be adopted.5

I was interrupted by the return of Alva Garner & James McCabe.6 They remained for supper, & I had no opportunity to write before Church as I was notified that I must preach if the Chaplain of the 70th Ind. did not come, & as it was late & quite cool, I thought I would postpone writing until morning, but I have just been notified to be ready to start on a Forage Expedition at 6-1/2 A.M. I must close my letter to-night late as it is (10-1/2).

Your letter of March 12th directed to Charleston, S.C. has reached me this evening. All the questions I believe have been previously answered save one, & that is that it is Clymer who wishes to join our Conference. He is to be married in June or July. I recd. a note from Lou Fellows through Allen this evening, dated the 9th inst., the same date of your last letter recd. She was expecting you to pay her a visit.

I have no late news from Carlisle. I hope to find mail here for me on my return. We go with two days’ rations. Bart, Allen, & Burton got up last night from Charleston.7 All our friends here are in good health. I must close for to-night. Remember me in love to all our friends. Kiss Howard for “Papa”. Write very often. I hope soon to be “Home” if it be God’s will. May His richest blessings rest upon you. Good Bye.

Your affect. Husband
J. F. Culver

  1. It has been impossible to further identify James Maxwell.
  2. At 10 A.M. on the 22d, Generals Sherman and Slocum had reviewed the XX Corps. Two hours before, the troops, leaving their knapsacks in camp, had formed in the streets west of Fayetteville Street. The Third Division, preceded by the Second Division, had marched past the reviewing stand at the Market House on Fayetteville Street. As the troops tramped by, in light marching order, the bands played familiar airs. O.R., Ser. I, Vol. XLVII, pt. III, pp. 268-69; Grunert, History of the 129th Illinois, pp. 238-39.
  3. The theory that the assassination of President Lincoln and attempts on the lives of Vice-President Johnson and Secretary of State William H. Seward was part of a conspiracy involving Confederate leaders and Knights of the Golden Circle had been fostered by Secretary of War Stanton.
  4. On April 17 General Sherman, in announcing the President’s assassination, had informed his soldiers, “We have met every phase which the war has assumed, and must now be prepared for it in its last and worst shape, that of assassins and guerrillas; but woe unto the people who seek to expend their wild passions in such a manner, for there is but one dread.” O.R., Ser. I, Vol. XLVII, pt. III, p. 239.
  5. Secretary of War Stanton, on April 21, notified General Grant that President Johnson had disapproved the memorandum of agreement between Generals Sherman and Johnston. Grant would relay this news to General Sherman and direct him “to resume hostilities at the earliest moment.” Ibid., p. 263.
  6. James J. McCabe of Pontiac, an 18-year-old, was mustered into service at Joliet, Ill., as a private in Company D, 20th Illinois Infantry, on June 13, 1861. He was promoted corporal on April 25, 1863, and was wounded at Raymond, Miss., May 12, 1863, and captured and paroled 12 days later. He reenlisted at Big Black Bridge, Miss., as a veteran volunteer on Jan. 5, 1864. Corporal McCabe was wounded a second time at Kennesaw Mountain on June 27, 1864, and was promoted to sergeant on Oct. 31, 1864. Compiled Service Records of Union Soldiers, NA.
  7. Robert Burton, a 30-year-old farmer, was mustered into service on Sept. 8, 1862, as a private in Company A, 129th Illinois Infantry. Hospitalized at Bowling Green, Ky., on Dec. 30, 1862, Private Burton was medically discharged on Nov. 1, 1863, and reenlisted as a private in Company A in Chicago on Oct. 12, 1864. Compiled Service Records of Union Soldiers, NA.

Learn to measure scholarly impact (H-index, Impact Factors, Eigenfactor) with our free workshop

You will learn how to use tools such as Ulrichs, Journal Citation Reports, Web of Science, and Scopus to determine the impact factor that journals, articles, and authors have had on a particular field.

Impact factors, Eigenfactors, and H-indices will also be discussed.

This session will be held Wednesday, April 22, from 10-11am in East Information Commons, Hardin Library.

 

Learn to save your research citations and format your papers with EndNote Basic, Tues. April 21 – 10-11am

EndNote logoLearn how to use EndNote Basic at our free workshop on Tuesday, April 21.

EndNote Basic is a web-based citation management software available free to download.

EndNote Basic lets you import, organize and format citations for papers or articles.  You can format your citations in seven different styles, including MLA and APA.

The workshop will be held in East Information Commons, Hardin Library for the Health Sciences, from 10-11am.

Register online.

 

 

Learn how to find Standards : Guides and Regulations for building or evaluating resources @Hardin Tues. April 21, 3-4pm

Get an introduction to standards and specifications. Learn how to find a wide variety of standards including:

  • ASTM
  • ISO
  • ADA
  • NFPA (Fluid)
  • US Code of Federal Regulations

Learn to search our new database, TechStreet, to find these standards online and more.  Taught by Kari Kozak, Head, Lictenberger Engineering Library.

Tuesday, April 21

3-4pm, East Information Commons, 2nd Floor, Hardin Library for the Health Sciences.

This is a sad day in the army

Joseph Culver Letter, April 18, 1865, Page 1

Head Qurs. Co. “A” 129th Ills.
Raleigh, N. C, April 18th 1865
My Dear Wife

Since I last wrote to you from this place we have been laying quietly in camp awaiting the result of the interview between Genls. Sherman & Johnson.1 They met yesterday at Hillsboro, & Genl. Sherman left this morning for the same place. It is generally believed that Johnson has surrendered his army but the arrangements have not been completed yet.

This is a sad day in the army. The news reached us officially this morning of the assassination and death of President Lincoln.2 We heard it rumored yesterday but did not credit it. I never saw so much sadness manifested. The whole army is silent as the grave. Groups are gathered here & there discussing the sad event. I have heard only one sentiment expressed, & it seems to be universal throughout the army. Woe to the South if this Army is compelled to pass through it again. Woe to the Rebel Army that compels us to fight longer, & Woe to the copperheads of the North. You cannot imagine what deep hatred exists against the latter class.

The army expects to be mustered out next month. We all anticipate spending the 4th of July at “Home.” There is no possible escape of Johnson’s army, & the news of Forrest & Rhoddy’s capture have reached us.3 As Johnson has command of all the rebel armies in the South, we expect their Surrender to Sherman before these negotiations close.4

Yesterday the news would have been received with wild acclamations of joy, to-day there would be no outburst at all. We have a meeting of the Brigade at 6 o’clock this evening to pay due respect to the dead. May God be merciful to us in our great affliction.

The weather is beautiful. Our meetings continue, & God is doing a great work for us. There were 10 forward Sunday night & 9 last night & numerous conversions. Over 160 have joined the church. The attendance is very large. I preached last night from Mark 16 Chap. & 16th V., & God was pleased to bless me.

All are in good health. I saw Allen Fellows this morning, Bros. Gaff & Lee yesterday. All well. I cannot find my ink & Yetter is on Picket, so you must excuse the pencil this time. My heart is too sad to write much to-day. We have recd. no mail yet. I will write soon again if we do not move. We will not remain here long as it is too far from our base of supplies. We will either go North or South. Write often. Give my love to all. Kiss Howard for me. May God bless you with His richest blessings. I remain, Very affectionately,

Your husband
J. F. Culver

  1. General Sherman, on the evening of the 17th, notified General Grant that he had just returned from a meeting with General Johnston at the Bennett House, 27 miles from Raleigh. There had been a “full and frank interchange of opinions,” with Johnston endeavoring to make terms for surrender of all Confederate forces still in the field. But to do so, he would have to discuss the subject further with Secretary of War John C. Breckinridge. Sherman was agreeable, and promised to meet again with Johnston at noon on the 18th at the same place. As he informed Grant, “we lose nothing in time, as by agreement both armies stand still and the roads are drying up, so that if I am forced to pursue we will be able to make better speed.” The one thing that both Sherman and Johnston feared was that the Confederate armies would “dissolve and fill the whole land with robbers and assassins.” O.R., Ser. I, Vol. XLVII, pt. III, p. 237.
  2. Sherman’s headquarters on the evening of the 17th issued a special field order, announcing, “with pain and sorrow,” the assassination of President Lincoln by one “who uttered the State motto of Virginia.” To calm passions, Sherman informed his soldiers “that the great mass of the Confederate Army would scorn to sanction such acts, but he believes it the legitimate consequence of rebellion against rightful authority.” Ibid., pp. 238-39.
  3. A powerful column led by Maj. Gen. James H. Wilson had advanced deep into Alabama. At Selma on April 2, Wilson’s horse-soldiers had routed Lt. Gen. Nathan B. Forrest’s once formidable corps. Forrest and Brig. Gen. Philip D. Roddey had narrowly escaped capture by swimming the rain-swollen Alabama River under cover of darkness. Warner, Generals in Gray, p. 262.
  4. J.F.C. was mistaken. General Johnston commanded the Department of South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida. But by involving Secretary of War Breckinridge in the negotiations he hoped to effect the surrender and parole of the remaining Confederate armies, as well as his own.

Database of the Week: RKMA Market Research Reports

Each week we will highlight one of the many databases we have here at the Pomerantz Business Library.

The database: Richard K. Miller & Associates Market Research ReportsRKMA

Where to find it: You can find it here, and under R in the databases A-Z list.

From therie website: “Richard K. Miller & Associates (RKMA) market research handbooks focus on various consumer-related markets. Each of these comprehensive assessments includes market forecasts, sector trends, and statistics. In addition to in-depth analyses, handbooks include links to hundreds of websites for additional information. ”

Use it to find:

  • Reports on:Business-to-Business Marketing; Casinos, Gaming & Wagering; Consumer Behavior; Consumer Marketing; Entertainment, Media & Advertising; Healthcare Business; International Consumer Markets; Leisure Market; Restaurant, Food & Beverage Market; Retail Business Market Research; Sports Marketing; and Travel & Tourism
  • Market forecasts
  • Sector trends
  • Statistics

Tips for searching:

  • Browse the main screen for the newest reports
  • Click the bottom link to view archived reports
  • Once in a report review the Table of Contents

RKMA_titlepage

Want help using RKMA Market Research Reports? Contact Willow or Kim and set up an appointment.