Combo Category

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Louise Liers, World War I nurse

This post, by Christina Jensen, appeared on the Iowa Women’s Archives Tumblr this summer, and has since been featured on NBC news.

On June 28th, 1914, Austro-Hungarian Archduke Franz Ferdinand was assassinated in Sarajevo by Yugoslav nationalist Gavrilo Princip. One month later, war broke out across Europe between two alliance systems. Britain, France, Russia, and Italy comprised the Allied powers. Germany, Austria-Hungary, and the Ottoman Empire constituted the Central powers. As war raged abroad, the U.S. wrestled with the politics of neutrality and intervention. In April of 1917, President Wilson was granted a declaration of war by Congress. The United States thus officially entered the conflict alongside Allied forces. 

To mark the occasion of the World War I centennial, we’re remembering Iowa women whose lives were shaped by the war.

One such woman was Clayton-native Louise Marie Liers (1887-1983), an obstetrics nurse who enrolled in the Red Cross and served in France as an Army nurse.

Before her deployment, however, Liers was required by the American Red Cross to submit three letters “vouching for her loyalty as an American citizen.” All nurses, regardless of nationality, were similarly required to provide three non-familial references testifying to this effect. While questions of loyalty and subversion are exacerbated in any war, America’s domestic front was rife with tension driven by geography, class, and ethnicity that raised fears and stoked national debate in the years leading up to America’s engagement in the Great War.

Louise Liers's war identification. Louise Liers Papers, Iowa Women's Archives, The University of Iowa Libraries, Iowa City.

Louise Liers’s war identification. Louise Liers Papers, Iowa Women’s Archives, The University of Iowa Libraries, Iowa City.

Arriving in 1918, Liers was stationed in the French town of Nevers where she treated wounded soldiers.  During this time Liers wrote numerous letters home to her parents and brother describing her duties and conditions of life during the war.

In a letter to her brother, featured below, Liers described her journey to France from New York City, with stops in Liverpool and Southampton.

Louise Liers’s letter to her brother, describing her journey from Iowa to Base Hospital No. 14 in France. Louise Liers papers, Iowa Women's Archives, The University of Iowa Libraries, Iowa City.

Louise Liers’s letter to her brother, describing her journey from Iowa to Base Hospital No. 14 in France. Louise Liers papers, Iowa Women’s Archives, The University of Iowa Libraries, Iowa City.

When Liers arrived in 1918, Nevers was only a few hours away from the Allied offensive line of the Western Front.  She was assigned to a camp that served patients with serious injuries and those who required long-term care.  Liers noted in a 1970 interview that, by the end of the war, as fewer patients with battle wounds arrived, her camp began to see patients with the “Asian flu,” also known as the 1918 influenza outbreak that infected 500 million people across the world by the end of the war.

In letters home, and in interviews given later, Liers described pleasant memories from her time in service, including pooling sugar rations with fellow nurses to make fudge for patients.  Nurses could apply for passes to leave camp and Liers was thus able to visit both Paris and Cannes.  In an interview Liers recalled that, serendipitously, she had requested in advance a leave-pass to travel into town for the 11th of November, 1918. To her surprise, that date turned out to be Armistice Day, and she was able to celebrate the end of the war with the citizens of Nevers.

“…devised such tortures and called it warfare…”

Along with her cheerier memories, however, Liers’s papers also describe the difficulties of caregiving during war.  She described Nevers as a town “stripped of younger people” due to the great number of deaths accrued in the four years of war.  In later interviews Liers offered many accounts of the grim surroundings medical staff worked under, from cramped and poorly equipped conditions, to unhygienic supplies, such as bandages washed by locals in nearby rivers, which she remembered as “utterly ridiculous from a sanitary standpoint…they were these awful dressings. They weren’t even sterilized, there wasn’t time.”  Due to the harsh conditions and limited resources, nurses and doctors gained practical knowledge in the field. Liers recalled frustrating battles to treat maggot-infected wounds before the nurses realized that the maggots, in fact, were sometimes the best option to keep wounds clean from infection in a field hospital.

On a grimmer note, Liers wrote to her parents the following:

“As I have told you before, the boys are wonderful- very helpful. When I see their horrible wounds or worse still their mustard gas burns or the gassed patients who will never again be able to do a whole days work- I lose every spark of sympathy for the beast who devised such tortures and called it warfare- last we were in Moulins when a train of children from the devastated districts came down-burned and gassed- and that was the most pitiful sight of all.”

By the time the “final drive” was in motion, Base Hospital No. 14 was filled with patients to nearly double capacity, and doctors and nurses had to work by candlelight or single light bulb. Liers’ wartime service and reflections suggest a range of emotions and experiences had by women thrust into a brutal war, remembered for its different methods of warfare, inventive machinery, and attacks on civilian populations.

Army nurses on parade, c. 1918. Louise Liers papers, Iowa Women's Archives, The University of Iowa Libraries, Iowa City.

Army nurses on parade, c. 1918. Louise Liers papers, Iowa Women’s Archives, The University of Iowa Libraries, Iowa City.

Liers worked in France until 1920, and her correspondence with friends and family marks the change in routine brought on by the end of the war.  With more freedom to travel, Liers and friends toured throughout France, and like countless visitors before and after, Liers describes how enchanted she became with the country, from the excitement of Paris to the rural beauty of Provence.

Following the war, Liers returned to private practice in Chicago, and later Elkader, where she was regarded as a local institution unto herself, attending over 7,000 births by 1949.  She was beloved by her local community, which gifted her a new car in 1950 as a sign of gratitude upon her retirement.

 

Want more? Visit the Iowa Women’s Archives! We’re open weekly Tuesday-Friday, 10:00am to noon and 1:00pm to 5:00pm.

A list of collections related to Iowa women and war can be found here.

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Remembering Emma’s early days

This post was written by Jessica Lawson, Graduate Research Assistant in the Iowa Women’s Archives.

(Clockwise from left) Sondra Smith, Barb Yates, Dale McCormick, Gayle Sand, and Francie Hornstein.

(Clockwise from left) Sondra Smith, Barb Yates, Dale McCormick, Gayle Sand, and Francie Hornstein.

  The Iowa Women’s Archives had an exciting visit at the end of July! Five women who were active in the feminist community in Iowa City in the 1970s and were early supporters of the Emma Goldman Clinic for Women visited the archives.  Dale McCormick, Sondra Smith, Gayle Sand, Barb Yates, and Francie Hornstein reunited to look through this feminist health clinic’s records and share memories of its early days. The Emma Goldman Clinic (fondly known as “Emma”) is a not-for-profit healthcare and family planning provider whose records are housed at the Archives.  Barb Yates was a “founding mother” of Emma, along with Ginny Blair, Robin Christensen, Melissa Farley, Diane Greene, Darca Nicholson, Deb Nye, Patty Pressley, Carmen Salas, and Roxie Tullis.

Barb Yates, Francie Hornstein, and Dale McCormick looking at Ain't I a Woman, published by the Women's Liberation Front in Iowa City in the early 1970s.

Barb Yates, Francie Hornstein, and Dale McCormick looking at Ain’t I a Woman, published by the Women’s Liberation Front in Iowa City in the early 1970s.

The collections we brought out for our visitors and the stories they shared reflect the rich interconnections among women’s organizations and social justice movements in Iowa City in the 1970s. In addition to the material in the Emma Goldman Clinic Records themselves, the history of the clinic is woven through the personal papers of two of the visitors (Dale McCormick and Sondra Smith), as well as other local activists like Jill Jack and Linda Yanney and organizations such as the Women’s Resource and Action Center (WRAC). The women laughed as they told stories about staging a feminist revision of Taming of the Shrew, proudly compared their work on Ain’t I a Woman (the newsletter of the Iowa City Women’s Liberation Front) to the work of women’s groups in New York City in the 1970s, and paused to celebrate the memory of Iowa Women’s Archives co-founder Louise Noun. They even found time to help us identify some of the faces in the old photographs.

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Women in Politics 2014: Historic & Current Perspectives

women in politics

Women in Politics 2014: Historic & Current Perspectives
Friday, April 18th, 2014, 8:15 AM to 5:00 PM
Old Capitol Museum Senate Chambers

The Louise Noun – Mary Louise Smith Iowa Women’s Archives was founded by two women who understood the critical importance of women participating in politics at all levels.

Join us for a day-long symposium that will examine why women do or do not run for political office, how they govern once elected, and documentation of the history of women in politics. The symposium will wrap up with a policy discussion and action steps.

The symposium is free and open to the public, but please register here, as space is limited.

The Women in Politics symposium is presented by the Public Policy Center in partnership with the Iowa Women’s Archives.

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Tamales and Juneteenth Cakes: Race, Recipes and Citizenship

Friday, March 28th, 2014 at 4:00p.m.
Iowa Women’s Archives
3rd Floor, Main Library
University of Iowa

Speakers:
Katherine Massoth, Ph.D. candidate
Susan Stanfield, Ph.D.

Tamales and Juneteenth Cakes

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Black Hawkeyes: The History of Black Students at the University of Iowa

Drawing on collections in the Iowa Women’s Archives, curator Kären Mason will discuss the history of African American women students at the University of Iowa on Tuesday, February 25th at the Iowa Memorial Union.

If you can’t make it to the talk, check out this wonderful resource: African American Women Students at the University of Iowa, 1910-1960.

black hawkeyes

Black Hawkeyes: The History of Black Students at the University of Iowa
Featuring Dr. Kären M. Mason, Curator of Iowa Women’s Archives
Tuesday, February 25, 12:30-2 PM
Penn State Room, Iowa Memorial Union
Presented by the Society of Black Graduate and Professional Students

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Women on the Chautauqua Circuit: Winsome Lasses and Ardent Advocates

This post by Kären Mason, Curator of the Iowa Women’s Archives, was originally written for Akashic Books.

Chautauqua was an eagerly anticipated event in towns across the United States in the early 20th century. Huge tents were erected and a variety of speakers, performances, and children’s activities took place over the week the Chautauqua was in town. Red Oak, Iowa even constructed a permanent Chautauqua Pavilion in 1907, which is still standing and reputed to be the largest covered pavilion west of the Mississippi.

Many women lectured or performed on the Chautauqua circuit. Some, like Marian Elliot Adams, the main character of Unmentionables, lectured on women’s reform issues. Women’s suffrage was a popular topic in the years leading up to 1920, when the 19th Amendment at long last gave women the vote. Chautauqua provided an important venue for reformers to reach audiences all across the country.

Photo-1

Jeannette Rankin (1880-1973) became an ardent suffragist while in high school and served as a field secretary for the National American Woman Suffrage Association after college. She advocated for suffrage and other reforms as a Chautauqua lecturer and was billed as “a fluent speaker sure to interest her audiences.” In 1916 she became the first woman elected to Congress, only possible because Montana had granted its women the right to vote in 1914.

While Jeannette Rankin and the fictional Marian Elliot Adams were very serious about promoting women’s issues on the Chautauqua stage, other women viewed Chautauqua as a lark. During the summer of 1926 Abbie McHenry (Romey) (1905-1994), a University of Iowa student, performed throughout the Midwest with five other students known as the Metropolitan Players. “Most of the audience turned its applause to Abbie Ann,” wrote a reporter in Greensburg, Indiana, charmed by the winsome lass he called “Amiable Abbie Ann.”  She recorded the summer’s travels in a diary and scrapbook, now in the Iowa Women’s Archives.

Abbie Ann McHenry’s sketch of the
platform manager in Kokomo, Indiana,
July 12, 1926.
 

Katharine La Sheck

For Katharine La Sheck (1891-1971), who had grown up in Iowa City, Iowa, Chautauqua offered a venue for showcasing her musical and theatrical talents. From 1911-1920 she performed with The College Girls and the Marigold Quartette, singing, acting, dancing, and playing musical instruments. Booked by the Redpath Chautauqua, the College Girls travelled to Panama in 1913 and 1914 to entertain Americans working on the canal, and performed on the cruise ships of the United Fruit Company Steamship Service.

Picture-4        Picture-5

The Marigolds let their hair down

And have fun with some fellow travelers.

To learn more about Chautauqua, visit the website Traveling Culture: Circuit Chautauqua in the Twentieth Century.

 

Picture-7All photographs from the Iowa Women’s Archives and Department of Special Collections, University of Iowa Libraries.  Do not reproduce without permission. Contact the Iowa Women’s Archives at lib-women@uiowa.edu or the Special Collections Department at lib-spec@uiowa.edu.

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eras of emma: the emma goldman clinic through four decades

eras of emma:  the emma goldman clinic through four decades

Join us for a panel discussion featuring women who have been active in Iowa City’s feminist health clinic founded in 1973. The clinic had its origins in an abortion referral service started by Iowa City’s Women’s Liberation Front in 1971. The Emma Goldman Clinic for Women opened September 1, 1973 in a house at 715 North Dodge Street, just months after Roe v. Wade was decided by the United States Supreme Court. Initially focused on woman-centered health care, the Emma Goldman Clinic later expanded its mission to provide reproductive health care for men as well as women.
 
The panel will be moderated by Karen Kubby, former director of the clinic, and will include clinic founder Deborah Nye, first director Marilyn Cohen, current director Jennifer Price, and board member Jorie Slodki.
 
 
Friday, October 18, 2013
 
1:00-2:30 p.m.
 
Iowa Women’s Archives,
3rd floor, Main Library
The University of Iowa
 
  egc newsletter w Our Bodies  EGC n dodge house in snow
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Left: The first home of the Clinic, at 715 N. Dodge, Iowa City.
 
Right: The cover of a 1979 newsletter put out by the Clinic. Note the speculum in the back pocket and the copy of Our Bodies Ourselves on the chest of drawers. The newsletter was later renamed Emma’s Periodical Rag.
 
Both items are from the Emma Goldman Clinic records in the Iowa Women’s Archives.
 
 

 

 

 

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John Fry: What I Learned from Publishing an Edited Manuscript, Fri, Sept 20, 10-11am

Laura and Earle Smith

Laura & Earle Smith were barely out of college in 1913 when they left Moravia, Iowa, to try their hand at homesteading near Chugwater, Wyoming.   Laura recounted their adventures years later in her memoir Almost Pioneers.

Historian John Fry (UI PhD, 2002) came across Almost Pioneers while doing dissertation research in the Iowa Women’s Archives and later edited it for publication.  The trail to getting the book published was almost as bumpy as the Wyoming roads of 1913–but not quite.  John Fry will be in town on September 19-20, 2013, to speak about the book.

A PIONEER EVENING WITH JOHN FRY

Thursday, September 19, 7:00 p.m.

Coralville Public Library

WHAT I LEARNED FROM PUBLISHING AN EDITED MANUSCRIPT

Friday, September 20, 10:00 a.m.

Iowa Women’s Archives

(3rd floor, Main Library, The University of Iowa)

Please join us!

For information, call 335-5068.

iwa_fry

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About our exhibition “Pathways to Iowa”

 

Ruth Salzmann, Germany, c. 1938.

In honor of the 20th anniversary of the Iowa Women’s Archives, we have mounted an exhibit in the North Exhibition Hall of the University of Iowa’s Main Library. The inspiration for this exhibit came from the many visits made to the archives by families and friends of donors. Earlier this year, Sam Becker brought his grandchildren to the archives to look at the papers of their grandmother, Ruth Salzmann Becker. As they learned of her narrow escape from Nazi Germany in 1938, Ruth Salzmann’s story became one of the migration paths featured in the exhibit.

“Pathways to Iowa: Migration Stories from the Iowa Women’s Archives” seeks to acknowledge the donors of the precious letters, photos, diaries, and memoirs that make up the collections preserved in the Iowa Women’s Archives. At the same time, it seeks to re-frame our understanding of Iowa history. Beginning with the migration path of Iowa’s first people, the Meskwaki, it integrates the familiar story of European settlement with a lesser known history of African American and Mexican migration in the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries.

LULAC women share their stories, Davenport, 2007.

For the past seven years, through its  Mujeres Latinas Project, the archives has worked to preserve the early history of Mexican migration to Iowa. We chose to highlight these materials in this exhibit because it is a history that has been hidden for too long. The Iowa Women’s Archives wishes to thank all of those who shared their stories with the Iowa Women’s Archives. A special thanks goes to the members of the Davenport League of United Latin American Citizens – LULAC Council 10 – who have done so much to preserve and bring to light the rich history of Iowa Latinas, their families, and organizations, and donated their records to the Iowa Women’s Archives so that others could learn this important history.